22 °C (72 °F) Green Beans Green coffee beans as they arrive at the dock. They can be stored for up to two years.
165 °C (329 °F) Drying Phase As beans roast, they lose water and increase in size. Saudi coffee is prepared using beans roasted from between 165 °C(329 °F) and 210 °C (410 °F).
195 °C (383 °F) Cinnamon Roast A very light roast level, immediately before first crack. Light brown, toasted grain flavors with sharp acidic tones, almost tea-like in character.
205 °C (401 °F) New England Roast Moderate light brown, still ascidic but not bready, a traditional roast for Northeastern U.S. Coffee, at first crack.
210 °C (410 °F) American Roast Medium light brown, the traditional roast for the Eastern U.S. First crack ending.
220 °C (428 °F) City Roast Medium brown, the norm for most of the U.S., good for tasting the varietal character of a bean.
225 °C (437 °F) Full City Roast Medium dark brown with occasional oil sheen, good for varietal character and bittersweet flavors. At the beginning of second crack.
230 °C (446 °F) Vienna Roast Moderate dark brown with light surface oil, more bittersweet, caramel-y flavor, acidity muted. In the middle of second crack. Occasionally used for espresso blends.
240 °C (464 °F) French Roast Dark brown, shiny with oil, burnt undertones, acidity diminished. At the end of second crack. A popular roast for espresso blends.
250 °C (482 °F) Spanish Roast Extremely dark brown, nearly black and very shiny, charcoal and tar tones dominate, flat, with thin body.